Earnings Season
Earnings Season
ECU (European Currency Unit)
ECU (European Currency Unit)
Emerging Economy
A term typically used for a country which still has per-capita output (as measured in gross domestic product per capita) significantly below the one of leading countries, but well above those of underdeveloped nations. Another factor is a rapid growth process typically associated with manufacturing and service industries. Emerging economies include large nations like China, India or Brazil, but also most of Eastern European nations.
Typically, in companies, the amount of capital available to do business. Capital is provided by the company's owners, which can be individuals, other companies or a government entity - or a mixture of the above. In case of listed companies, shares representing a portion of the capital, are openly traded in stock exchanges, whereas the majority of companies is held private, with no or very limited transactions in their share capital taking place. What most investors don't really know is that a company's equity is the risk element in a company's balance sheet. During bad times, it gets used up first, as losses directly reduce equity (and reserves, if there are any). In case of a bankruptcy, almost always, the entire equity is lost, because all other debt is served first.
Energy Return on (Energy) Investment is a term used to describe the amount of energy required to produce an additional unit of energy. An EROI of 20 for example says that 20 energy units can be gained from an energy sourcing/manufacturing process using one unit of input energy.
Eurozone (list of countries)
exponential growth
Exponential growth is what we humans have experienced in almost all our ecosystem parameters during the past 250 years, in population, income, energy consumption, and many other things. It refers to the fact that even small constant growth rates translate to larger and larger real growth numbers. An example: If a species of animals starts with 100 individuals and grows at 2% annually, it takes 36 years until their number reaches 200. Within another 82 years they reach 1000. Approximately every 116 years, the population now grows by a factor of ten, and after only 466 years, the population reaches one million, and 1 billion after 582 years. This produces a curve that almost looks like a hockey stick, remaining flat for a long time and then suddenly continuing to an almost vertical trajectory. Exponential growth is the predominant type of growth in ecosystems without (energy) input constraints, but it only lasts until system boundaries are reached.
Goods or services delivered from one country (exporter) to another (importer).